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Unit 2

The Examples of  Contrastive Analysis

 

 

THE MICROLINGUISTICS CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS

BETWEEN JAVANESE LANGUAGE OF BANYUMASAN AND ENGLISH

 

INTRODUCTION

Contrastive analysis is an activity that tries to compare the structure of the first language (L1) and second language structure (L2) with the aim to identify differences between two languages. James in his Contrastive Analysis (1980:3) mentions that a contrastive analysis is the linguistic activity that aims to produce a typology of two languages ​​and based on the assumption that language can be compared between L1 and L2 so that the difficulties encountered in learning a second language (L2) can be addressed immediately. Meanwhile Contrastive analysis is used to indicate a systematic comparison of certain aspects between the two languages. Contrastive analysis serves to make teaching an efficient and effective language for students who have different language backgrounds. In studying the target language, The similarities between the L1 and L2 will facilitate the learning process, whereas the differences will cause difficulties for learners.

There are two general principles on Contrastive Analysis according to James (1980:63), namely (1) description and (2) comparison. The steps are implemented in order in this discussion, the discussion of this matter to be raised is focused at the level of microlinguistics in phonology. Not a few students of L2 get interference with their speaking style, especially with the pronunciation, in which the Javanese phonemes on Banyumasan language (especially for students who are in the area Banyumas) is very different from the English phonemes.

The description of phonology is the most basic thing to be done for the first time in describing the language. There is also an opinion stating that the description of levels of language should not be mixed and when describing the phonemes is not justified in using grammatical factors either. The description must be based on the language level procedures.

 

 

DISCUSSION

This discussion will be described in the Javanese language usage of  Banyumasan which are, especially, related to Javanese sounds used. Banyumasan dialect or the language of  Ngapak Ngapak often called the Javanese language is used in the western region of Central Java, Indonesia. Banyumasan language known by way of talking. The dialect is called Banyumasan as it is used by people who live in areas of Banyumasan.

Compared with the language of Yogyakarta and Surakarta Javanese dialect, the dialect of Banyumasan has lots of differences. The main difference that the phoneme 'a' remains  pronounced 'a' instead of 'o'. so if people eat in Solo 'sego'/sƏ go/ (rice), in the region Banyumasan people eat 'sega' /sƏ gʌ /. In addition, words ending in consonants fully read clearly. For example, the word ‘enak’ by other dialects is pronunced ‘ena’, whereas in the dialect of Banyumasan, the word ‘enak’   with the sound 'k' is read clearly, that is why the language known by the language Banyumasan Ngapak or Ngapak-ngapak.

 

Articulation
The sound of the voice can be studied in three different ways. The first is termed acoustic phonetics that is studying how sound is transmitted. The second is the phonetic auditory (auditory phonetics) that is how the sound of voices was heard, and the third is articulatory phonetics that is studying how the voice sounds generated by the tool man said. Approach to the analysis of this speech is one of the most important thing that needs to be taught by a teacher of languages ​​that can be compared between the pronunciation of the L1 and L2. Obviously very different between people of Indonesia (especially Java Banyumasan people) with the articulation of Europeans (especially the British). For example, for the sound / p /, / t /, / k / are pronounced at the starting position for the British people familiar with the sound of 'aspirated / is the sound of which is accompanied by breath that does not apply to the plosive Indonesia.

For example:

Inggris                          Indonesia

            Pan /pæn/                     panci /pʌnt∫I/               

            Cat /kæt/                      kucing /kʊt∫Iŋ/

            Tomato /tɒm ætɒ/          tomat /tom ʌt/

 

The sound of 'aspirated' only occurs in initial position, both the initial word and initial stress / pressure, in English, which is often known as allophones   or variations of sound. Such differences could be considered good for students who are non-English language or in other words, students who learn English to be able to distinguish sounds in Indonesian with sound in English.

 

Classification of Vowels

Vowels that exist in the Java language Banyumasan much different with vocals that exist in English. In the Java language Banyumasan knows only 5 (five) symbol of the vowel phonemes / a /, / i /, / u /, / e /, and / o /. while in English there are 12 (twelve) vowel phoneme symbols are: / i: /, / i /, / e /, / æ /, / ɑ : /, / ɔ /, / ɔ : /, /, / ʊ /, / u: /, / ʌ /, / Ə: /, / Ə / in Banyumasan Javanese vowels will be pronounced in accordance with his words while in the English language will be different vowel words when spoken.

 

 

Table 1

Vowel Diagram of Banyumasan Language

In the regency of Banyumas

Vowel

Front

Middle

back

Close

I

 

u

Half close

E

Ә

o

Half open

e

 

 

Open 

 

a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2.1

Vowel Diagram of English

Vokal

Front

Middle

back

Close

i:

 

u:

Half close

I

Ə : 

  Ə

ʊ

Half open

e

ʌ

ɔ:

Open 

æ

ɑ:

ɔ

 

The diagram of English vowels above can be illustrated by the position of vowel sound below.

 

Table 2.2

The diagram of English vowels

CENTRAL

                           I        CLOSE                                                                  u

                                 i: x                                                      u: x

 

                                             I x                                   ʊ x

                                        HALF CLOSE                                                

          FRONT                                   Ə: x                              BACK

                                 e x   HALF OPEN Ə x   

                                                                                           

                                                             ʌ x                            x ɔ:      

                                    æ x                                              x ɒ  

                                              OPEN                              ɑ  x      

To see the comparison between the two languages can be seen at the table 3 below.

 

 

Table 3

The Comparison of English Vowel Sounds and Vowel Sounds of

Javanese Language of Banyumasan

No

Phoneme

English

Javanese Language of Banyumasan

1

/i:/

Sheep   /∫i:p/

-

2

/I/

Ship /∫Ip/

Sapi /s ʌ pl/

3

/e/

Pen /pen/

Meja /meʤʌ/

4

/ æ/

Bad /bæd/

-

5

/ɑ:/

Car /kɑ:(r)

-

6

/ɔ/

/o/

Pot /pɔt/

-

-

Pot   /pot/

7

/ɔ:/

Port /pɔ:t/

-

8

/ʊ/

Book   /bʊk/

Buku /bʊkʊ /

9

/u:/

Food /fu:d/

-

10

/ʌ/

Cup /kʌp/

Cangkir / t∫ʌŋkir/

11

/Ə:/

Skirt /skƏ:t/

-

12

/Ə/

Apple / æpƏl/

Apel /ʌpƏl/

 

Note: For the Javanese vowel phonemes of Banyumasan do not have a symbol (phonetic transcription) as in the English phonemes which is each phoneme either vowel or consonant has a sound symbol (phonetic transcription). In the examples above the writer tries to transcribe into English phonemes to distinguish them easily.

 

From the distribution of vowels the above, it can be seen that in the Javanese language of   Banyumasan, there is no long vowel sound like the sound of 'I' long / i: /, 'u' long / u: /, 'o' long / ɔ : /, 'Ə 'long / Ə : / and' a 'long / ɑ : /. For the sound of 'o' vowel is not found in English, because the 'o' vowel in English is a bit open, which can be seen in Table 3 no. 6, the word 'pot 'on Javanese language of Banyumasan, the sound 'o' is pronounced as 'o' round, while the English sound is spoken with a little bit open so that the use of symbols / ɔ /

 

Classification Of Consonants

Unlike the vowels, consonants in English are almost identical with the consonants in the Indonesian language although there are some consonants which cannot be found in Javanese language of Banyumasan, such as consonants / ∫ /. / Ʒ /. For the consonants / θ / and / ð / in the Javanese language of Banyumasan is almost the same sound with the sound of consonant ‘th’. Example: ‘wathuk’ (cough), and ‘dh’, in ‘wedhi’ (sand). we can see them clearly in Table 4 for a diagram comparing the two consonant sounds between English consonant sounds and consonant sounds of Javanese language of Banyumasan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4.1

The Diagram of English Sounds

 

Bilabial

Labio-dental

Dental

Alveolar

Post-alveolar

palatal

Velar

Glottal

Stop/ plosive

 

p. b

 

 

 

 

t. d

 

 

 

k. g

 

 

Affricate

 

 

 

 

t∫. ʤ

 

 

 

 

 

Nasal

 

m

 

 

 

n

 

 

 

ŋ

 

 

Lateral

 

 

 

 

l

 

 

 

 

 

Fricative

 

 

f. v

 

θ . ð

 

s. z

 

R

 

∫. ʒ

 

 

h

Semi-vowel

 

w

 

 

 

 

 

j

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4.2

The Diagram of Consonants of Javanese Language of Banyumasan

Konsonan

Dasar Ucapan

Bil

Lab.dent

Den

Alv

Palt

Velr

Glotl

Lar

Stop/

Plosive

Voiceless

p

 

t

(th)

C

k

 

 

Voiced

b

 

d

(dh)

J

g

 

 

Affricate  

Voiceless

 

 

s

 

 

 

 

h

Voiced

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nasal

Voiced

m

 

n

 

 

ng(ŋ)

 

 

Lateral

Voiced

 

 

l

 

 

 

 

 

Fricative

Voiced

 

f. v

r

 

 

 

 

 

Semi vowel (voiced)

 

 

w

 

Y

 

 

 

 

It can be seen more clearly the differences and similarities of phonemes between Javanese Language of Banyumasan and English in Table 5 below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 5

The Comparison of Consonant Sounds between English and

Javanese Language of Banyumasan

 

No

Phonemes

English

Javanese language of Banyumasan

1

/p/

Plate / pleit/

Piring /piriŋ/ (plate)

2

/b/

Book   /bʊk/

Buku /bʊkʊ /   (book)

3

/t/

Text  /tekst/

Tuku /tʊkʊ/   (buy)

4

/d/

Desk /desk/

Dompet /dompet/  (wallet)

5

/k/

Cat /kæt/

Kucing /kʊt∫Iŋ/ (cat)

6

/g/

Good /gʊd/

Gede / gƏde/     (big)

7

/t∫/

chin / t∫in/

Cangkir / t∫ʌŋkir/  (cup)

8

/ʤ/

Bridge /brIʤ/

Jawa /ʤʌwʌ/   (Java)

9

/m/

Man /mæn/

Mangan /mʌŋʌn/ (eat)

10

/n/

Nine /nain/

Nemu /nƏmʊ/  (find)

11

/ŋ/(ng)

Sing /sIŋ/

Ngantuk /ŋʌntʊk/ (sleepy) 

12

/l/

Leave /li:v/

Lunga /lʊŋʌ/ (go)

13

/f/

Five  /faiv/

-

14

/v/

Van /væn/

-

15

/θ/ (th)

Think / θIŋk/

Wathuk /wʌθʊk/ (cough)

16

/ð/ (dh)

Then / ð en/

Wedhi /wƏ ði/  (scary)

17

/s/

Sun /sʌn/

Sumur /sʊmʊr/  (well)

18

/z/

Zoo /zu:/

-

19

/r/

Ruler /rulƏ{r)

Rokok /rokok/   (cigarette)

20

/∫/

Sheep /∫i:p/

-

21

/ʒ/

Measure /meʒƏ(r)/

-

22

/h/

Hen /hen/

Akeh /ʌkeh/   (many/much)

23

/w/

Wood /wu:d/

Wengi /wƏŋI/ (night)

24

/j/

Young /jʌŋ/

Yayuk /jʌjʊk/ (older sister)

 

Note: For the Javanese consonant phonemes of Banyumasan do not have a symbol (phonetic transcription) as in the English phonemes which is each phoneme either vowel or consonant has a sound symbol (phonetic transcription). In the examples above the writer tries to transcribe into English phonemes to distinguish them easily.

 

For the phoneme / θ / though the Javanese language of Banyumasan often arise but the students in the area of Banyumas often utter the sound / θ / to sound / t /.

 

Examples:

            Thank               /tæŋk/               (wrong)

             Thank               / θæŋk/             (right)                          

 

For the phoneme / f / and / v / do not appear in the Javanese language of Banyumasan although in the Indonesian language, there are some words frequently encountered, for example the word 'sofa'. Banyumas people often utter sounds / f / with the sound / p / (though not all) such as your name is ‘Hanafi’, it will be pronounced ‘hanapi’. The phonemes / z /, / ∫ /, / ʒ / are also not included in the Javanese language sounds of Banyumasan. For more details we can see from the original Javanese language that can be seen in table 6.

 

 

Table 6

The Javanese Alphabet  in ‘Hanacaraka/Carakan’

 

Ha

 

Na

 

ca

 

Ra

 

ka

 

Da

 

Ta

 

sa

 

Wa

 

la

 

Pa

 

Dha

 

ja

 

Ya

 

nya

 

Ma

 

Ga

 

ba

 

Tha

 

nga

 

 

From the table 6 above it can be seen that there are 20 sounds of Javanese language of Banyumasan but there is one sound that is not found in English,  that is the sound of ‘nya'.

 

There are some differences between phonemes in the Javanese language of Banyumasan and English. The Javanese language of   Banyumasan, there is no long vowel sound like the sound of 'I' long / i: /, 'u' long / u: /, 'o' long / ɔ : /, 'Ə 'long / Ə : / and' a 'long / ɑ : /. For the sound of 'o' vowel is not found in English, because the 'o' vowel in English is a bit open, the sound 'o' is pronounced as 'o' round, while the English sound is spoken with a little bit open so that the use of symbols / ɔ /

Phoneme / f / and / v / rarely appear in the Javanese language of Banyumasan although in the Indonesian language, there are some words frequently encountered, for example the word 'sofa'. Banyumas people often utter sounds / f / with the sound / p / (though not all) such as your name is ‘Hanafi’, it will be pronounced ‘hanapi’. The phonemes / z /, / ∫ /, / ʒ / are also not included in the Javanese language sounds of Banyumasan.

By comparing the sounds of English and Javanese language of Banyumasan, English teachers are expected be able to train students to pronounce the particular sounds clearly, especially for some sounds which are rare found in Javanese language of Banyumasan like the sound / f /, / v /, / z / , / ∫ /, and / ʒ /.

 

 

Thu, 12 Sep 2013 @09:11

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