Unit 9

Types of Error



       Linguistics classifies Errors based on the language component,  and constituent linguistics. language component consists of phonology (pronunciation), syntax and morphology (grammar), semantics and lexicon (meaning and vocabulary), and discourse (style). The examples of errors based on the linguistics can be seen below, but it is only limited on the errors which are related to the syntax and morphology.


A. Morphology

       Errors which are related to morphology can be divided into six parts, which are related to; indefinite article, possessive case, verb forms for third singular person, the simple past tense, the past participle, and comparative adjective and comparative adverb.


1.      Error in Indefinite Article

a. Article ‘a’    is used in front of  noun ’ which has the vowel sound.

e.g. : a umbrella, a hour,  a ant

b. Article ‘an’     is used in front of ‘noun’ which has the consonant sound.

e.g. : an  little ant,   an  good umbrella.


2.      Error in Possessive Case

a. Omitting  ‘s

   e.g.: Ali book,  mother dress

b. Error in using the possessive pronoun

   e.g.: Book I, (for my book).


3.      Errors in verb form for the third person singular

a. Not adding  -s    at the verb of third person singular.

   e.g.: She help her mother every morning

b. Error in putting  -s  at the verb which is followed by adverbial participle.

   e.g. : The water boil downs.

c.       Error in the Simple Past tense

-         Past tense from the irregular verb is not added –ed .

              e.g.: I walk to school yesterday.

-         Adding   -ed at the verb which has been added  -ed .

            e.g.: He helpeded his father in the field last Sunday.

-         Adding  -ed   at the irregular verb.

            e.g.: I writed a letter this morning.

-         Not changing the irregular verb form into past tense.

              e.g.: He fall in the water yesterday.


B. Syntax

       Error which is related to syntax can be classified according to: noun phrase, verb phrase, verb and verb construction, word order and several transformations.

1.      Noun Phrase

       Error which is related to noun phrase, can be grouped into four parts; determiners, nominalization, numbers, and the use of pronouns.

a. Determiners

1) Not using article that should be used with noun.

     e.g.: He did not buy book

2) Using definite article at the place that should be placed by possessive pronoun.

     e.g.: He fell down on the head.

3) Using possessive pronoun together with definite article in front of ‘noun’

     e.g.: The students worked hard for the their exams.

4) The use of possessive pronoun which is not correct.

     e.g.: The little girl hurt his leg.


b. Nominalization

   Using infinitive for ‘verb’ that should be in the –ing form.

   e.g.: He earns his living by to teach.

c. Numbers

1) Using singular form for ‘noun’ that should be in the plural form.

     e.g.: He needs some green leaf.

2) using plural form for ‘noun’ that should be in the singular form.

     e.g.: Two child is helped by the policemen.

d. The use of Pronouns

1)      Omitting pronoun as the subject of sentence.

     e.g.: (She) bought the book last month.

2) Omitting the introductory  ‘it’.

    e.g.: (It) is rude to say it.

3) Omitting pronoun as the object.

     e.g.: I want (it) hot.

4) Pronoun as the subject which is used redundantly.

     e.g.: My brother he go to New Zealand.

5) Using pronoun  me    in the position of pronoun as the subject.

     e.g.: Me like it too.


2.      Verb Phrase

Error which is related to the verb phrase, can be in omitting  verb of the incorrect use of progressive tense.

a. Omitting verb

1) The sentence which uses main verb.

     e.g.: She (walks) to school every morning.

2) The sentence which does not use to be .

     e.g.: I student,  She a teacher.


b. The use of Progressive tense

1) Not using to be.

     e.g.: Father going to town.

2) Using the -ing form for the sentence which is used in the simple past  sentence.

     e.g.: We watching TV last night.


3. Verb and Verb construction

a. Omitting the word  to  in the identical subject construction.

     e.g.: I go play

b. Using the word for   and to   together.

     e.g.: He came for to help us.

c. Omitting the word to   in the verb and verb construction.

     e.g.: I see a bird got the leaf.

d. Using past tense for to infinitive .

    e.g.: He is going to told a story.





4.  Transformation

       Error which is related to the Transformation can be classified into; negative transformation, multiple negation, question transformation, transformation of there, transformation of subordinate clause.

a. Negative transformation

  Using the word no   or   not   without the auxiliary  do.

    e.g. : He not teach anymore

             Why not you come to my house?

b.  Multiple negation

  Using not    and   no   more than one.

e.g. : We won’t have no fun

         There isn’t no one in the classroom.

c. Question transformation

     Omitting the auxiliary .

     e.g. : How the explanation helps?

d. There Transformation

1) The use of   is    that should be   are

   e.g. : There is some books

            Is there many people?

2) Omitting the word  there   in the sentence with introductory  there.

   e.g. :Is only one student in the class?

3) Using   it  was   in a sentence  that should be placed by  there were .

   e.g. : It  was beautiful houses on the top of the hill.

e. Subordinate Clause Transformation

     The use of the word  for   that should be  so  that .

   e.g. : The teacher gave clue for the student could answer the questions.


      Errors which may be made by students are not only shown above, but there is a possibility to make other errors. [1]

       Meanwhile, Betty Schrampfer Azar prints out several examples of types of writing errors in grammar aspects. They are as follows:

1. Singular-Plural

e.g. :  Incorrect:            He have been here for six month.

     Correct  :           He has been here for six months .

2. Word form

e.g. :  Incorrect:            I saw a beauty picture.

      Correct:            I saw a beautiful picture .

3. Word choice

e.g. :  Incorrect:            She got on the taxi.

           Correct: She got in to the taxi .

4. Verb tense

e.g. :   Incorrect:           He is here since June.

            Correct:            He has been here since June .

5. Add a word

e.g. :  Incorrect:            I want   go to the zoo.

           Correct: I want to go to the  zoo .

6. Omit a word

e.g. :  Incorrect:            She entered to the University.

           Correct: She entered the University .

7. Word order

e.g. :  Incorrect:  I saw five times that movie.

            Correct:            I saw that movie five times .

8. Incomplete sentence

e.g. :  Incorrect:            I went to bed. Because I was tired.

           Correct:             I went to bed because I was tired .

9. Spelling

e.g. :  Incorrect:            An accident occured.

           Correct: An accident occurred .

10. Capitalization

e.g. :  Incorrect:            I am studying english.

           Correct: I am studying English .

11. Article

e.g. :  Incorrect:            I had a accident.

           Correct: I had an accident .

12. Meaning not clear

e.g. :  He borrowed some smoke.

         ( ??? )[2]

[1] Drs. Syamsuddin  A. R. Buku Materi Pokok  Snggar Bahasa Indonesia . Dep.Dik. Bud. Universitas Terbuka. 1986. p.4.2-4.9

[2] Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar (Guide for Correcting Writing Errors. 1989. Prentice Hall.Inc. p. A29-30

Thu, 12 Sep 2013 @09:04

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