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Unit 10

The Objective of Error Analysis

 

In accordance with the objective of error analysis  which has been stated by K. Sharma that one clear objective of error analysis is evolving a suitable and effective teaching-learning strategy and remedial measures necessary in certain clearly marked out areas of the foreign language. Whereas, Prof. Dr. Henry Guntur Tarigan and Djago Tarigan mention another objective of error analysis. They are as follows:

            “Analisis kesalahan, antara lain bertujuan untuk:

(1)   menentukan urutan penyajian butir-butir yang diajarkan dalam kelas dan  buku teks, misalnya urutan mudah-sukar.

(2)   Menentukan urutan jenjang relatif penekanan, penjelasan dan latihan berbagai butir bahan yang diajarkan.

(3)   Merencanakan pelajaran dan pengajaran remedial

(4)   Memilih butir-butir bagi pengujian kemahiran siswa (Sidhar, 1985:221-2)”

 

A. Procedure of  Error Analysis

There are some experts of the language teaching propose that error analysis has some steps, they are as follows:

(1)  collecting of the sample

(2)  identifying of the error

(3)  explanation of the error

(4)  classification of the error

(5)  evaluation of the error

B.   Resource and Cause of Errors

       Errors can be regarded as the inhibiting factor of teaching and learning process. Errors can also be regarded as the image of students competence. Contrastive considers that errors can cause by interference between mother language and foreign language. It means that the resource of errors is located in the difference between  the first language and the foreign language. Not all errors are caused by interference, there are some errors which are not formed the background of the generalization. Errors in language which are not formed the background of first language are called independent errors.

 

C.   Analyzing the Errors

In analyzing the error we can use the steps of error analysis by Corder (1974) who specified the three steps of EA. The steps are as followed:

-          Collection of sample errors

-          Identification of errors

-          Description of errors

 

Most Common Errors and Examples of Errors

 

Definition and

Error classification

Identification of errors

Correct sentences and explanation of rule

1. Singular/Plural

 

 

 

 

1. Another problem is insufficient number of rubbish bin Sing/Plu around the canteen compound.

2. This is because the students always throw tissues, plastic bag Sing/Plu , tissue wrapperSing/Plu and bottleSing/Plu in the drain.

3. it leads to many other problem Sing/Plu

1. Another problem is insufficient number of rubbish bins around the canteen compound.

2. This is because the students always throw tissues, plastic bags , tissue wrappers and bottles in the drain

3. it leads to many other problems

2. Verb Tense

 

 

 

 

1. We, the members of the cleanliness club of SMK Engku Husain conduct VTense a meeting.

2. The plates and glasses are very oily and dirty because not washes VTense properly.

3. The members of the cleanliness club of SMK Engku Husain having VTense a meeting

 

1. We, the members of the cleanliness club of SMK Engku Husain conducted a meeting.

2. The plates and glasses are very oily and dirty because not washed properly.

3. The members of the cleanliness club of SMK Engku Husain had a meeting.

3. Word Choice

1. Not washing and sweeping the flour Wchoice everyday makes the floor dirty

2. The workers should keep the canteen clean and healthy .WChoice

3. This is due to the irresponsible attitude of the canteen staff .WChoice

 

1. Not washing and sweeping the floor everyday makes the floor dirty.

2. The workers should keep the canteen clean and safe .

3.This is due to the irresponsible attitude of the canteen workers

4. Preposition

1. So many dirty plates and glasses can be seen everywhere at Preposition the school canteen

2. The food to cater to Preposition the students during recess are not enough

3. As the secretary at Preposition the club I have been assigned to write report

1. So many dirty plates and glasses can be seen everywhere around the school canteen

2. The food to cater for recess are not enough

 

3. As the secretary of the club I have been assigned to write report

5. Subject-Verb

Agreement

 

 

 

1. A large number of students is S/VAgreement sick.

2. We need to be careful because it dealing S/Vagreement with health.

3. The dirts always stick in the food that the studentsS/Vagreement are Eating .

4. It causes fights because there are no chairs to sits S/VAgreement

A large number' refers to more than one person, i.e. plural subject and requires plural verb 'are':

1. 'A large number of students are sick'.

2. We need to be careful because it deals with Health

3. The dirts always stick in the food that the students eat

4. It causes fights because there are no chairs to sit .

6. Word Order

Disordering/Inversion

of subject and verb

 

 

 

1. We don't know why are we WOrder facing these problems.

2. Dirty kitchen area is another problemWOrder

3. Although in the canteen, number of rubbish binsWOrder are not enough

Subject-verb inversion (why are we facing) in the interrogative but inversion ruled out in the form of statement (why we are):

1. I don't know why we are facing these problems

2. Another problem is dirty kitchen area

3. Although the number of rubbish bins in the canteen , are not enough

 

 

Most Common Errors

Singular and Plural Form

Some of the participants did not know that the plural form using the suffix ‘s’ must be applied to the countable plural noun. A possible reason for the failure to construct plural noun forms probably because in Malay, there is no plural marker for a noun. However, for some participants, they have already hypothesized that English nouns have plural and singular forms. However, they were not sure when they should apply the plural form. When the subject was in the singular form they applied the plural form to the noun as shown in the examples below:

1.      One of the main problemsSing/Plu are the dirty plates and plastic glasses used

2.      They eats and drinks Sing/Plu and just leave on the table

3.      The benches and chairs for the students to sit is Sing/Plu not enough

 

Verb Tense

Wrong application of verb tense can be seen when the participants did not apply the correct tense to the verb in the sentences. It can be assumed that some of the participants are not aware of the different rules for tenses application. The use of some suffixes like ‘ing’ and past tense forms showed that these participants are aware of the rules on different tenses application and they have already hypothesized that these verbs needed to be used with different tense forms and should not be used in the basic form.

This is because some verbs written using different tenses forms are not written in the basic form of the verb. For example, the sentence ‘I waiting for my food’ could be written in the basic form ‘I am waiting for my food’. This shows that they acknowledged the ‘ing’ form but they were not sure of the complete past continuous tense forms and application in the English sentence.

The suffix ‘ing’ applied is not relevant to the context given because the context required verb to be written in the past tense form instead. This information revealed that the different tenses rules application was not formed but they have already hypothesized that these tenses forms exists in English grammar. Examples of wrong application of verb tense are shown below.

1.      We, the members of the cleanliness club of SMK Engku Husain conduct VTense a meeting.

2.      The plates and glasses are very oily and dirty because not washes VTense properly.

3.      The members of the cleanliness club of SMK Engku Husain having VTense a meeting

 

Word Choice

Participants lack appropriate vocabulary. One participant used the word ‘flour’ instead of ‘floor’ in

sentence no. 1. Another participant uses the word ‘healthy’ instead of ‘safe’ in sentence no. 2. While

the third participant used the word ‘staff’ instead of ‘workers’ in sentence no. 3.

1.      Not washing and sweeping the flour WChoice everyday makes the floor dirty

2.      The workers should keep the canteen clean and healthy .WChoice

3.      This is due to the irresponsible attitude of the canteen staff .WChoic

 

Preposition

The participants demonstrated confusion for correct usage of preposition. In sentence no. 1 the correct preposition is ‘around’ rather than ‘at’. In sentence no. 2, the preposition ‘for’ should have been used.

While the preposition ‘of’ should have been used in sentence no. 3.

1. So many dirty plates and glasses can be seen everywhere at Preposition the school canteen

2. The food to cater to Preposition the students during recess are not enough

3. As the secretary at Preposition the club I have been assigned to write report

 

Subject-Verb Agreement

‘A large number’ refers to more than one person, i.e. plural subject and requires plural verb ‘are’. However, one participant uses ‘is’ instead as shown in sentence no. 1. In sentence no. 2, the correct word should be ‘deals’. In sentence no. 3, ‘eat’ should be used rather than ‘are eating’. The word ‘sit’ should be used rather than ‘sits’ in sentence no. 4.

1. A large number of students is S/VAgreement sick.

2. We need to be careful because it dealing S/Vagreement with health.

3. The dirts always stick in the food that the students S/Vagreement are eating.

4. It causes fights because there are no chairs to sits S/VAgreement

 

Sentence Construction

Besides the above errors, participants also have problems in forming simple or complex sentences. A complete sentence should start with a subject and should be followed by a verb and an object or complete sentences. However, the participants demonstrate missing/wrong object, missing subject, and missing verb in their essays.

1.      Secondly, the dirties on the kitchen area. The school workers doesn't care weather the flies on the food that is going to affect the students Vague Correct sentence: Secondly, the kitchen area is very dirty and can affect the students’ health but the workers don’t care about the cleanliness.

2.      The dirty plates are and we have no appetite to eat consequently. Many feel themselves the students always feel sick. Vague Correct sentence: The plates are dirty and consequently, we do not have the appetite to eat. As a result, many students fall sick.

3.      Since the workers are not washing and sweeping properly the floor everyday the workers the dust and dirts will fly around and stick in the food that the student will eat. Vague Correct sentence: Since the workers are not washing and sweeping the floor properly everyday, the dust and dirt fly around everywhere and stick onto the food that the student eats.



Prof. Dr. Henry Guntur Tarigan & Drs. Djago Tarigan , Pengajaran Analisis Kesalahan Berbahasa , Angkasa Bandung. 1988, p 69

Prof. Dr. Henry Guntur Tarigan & Drs. Djago Tarigan . ibid , p.67

Prof. Dr. Henry Guntur Tarigan, et al. ibid p.79

 

Thu, 12 Sep 2013 @09:03

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