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Direct Method

 

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o   Since the Grammar-Translation Method was not very effective in preparing students to use the target language communicatively, the Direct Method became popular.

o   The basic rule of Direct Method is that No translation is allowed.

o   Direct Method receives its name from the fact that meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language through the use of demonstration and visual aids. (Diller 1978)

o   Known words could be used to teach new vocabulary, using mime, demonstration, and pictures.

 

The Principles and Procedures in DM (Jack C. Richards, 1992:9-10)

1.     Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language.

2.     Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.

3.     Oral communication skills were built up in carefully graded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes.

4.     Grammar was taught inductively.

5.     New teaching points were introduced orally.

6.     Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas.

7.     Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.

8.     Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.

 

     The Guidelines for Teaching Oral Language in DM (Richards, 1992: 10)

ü  Never translate                                 à        demonstrate

ü  Never explain                                   à         act

ü  Never make a speech                     à         ask questions

ü  Never imitate mistake                      à         correct

ü  Never speak with single words     à         use sentences

ü  Never speak too much                    à         make students speak  much

ü  Never use the book                         à        use lesson plan

ü  Never go too fast                              à         keep the pace of the students

ü  Never speak too slowly                   à         speak normally

ü  Never speak too quickly                 à         speak naturally

ü  Never speak too loudly                   à         speak naturally

ü  Never be impatient                          à         take it easy

 

REVIEWING THE PRINCIPLES

o   What are the goal of teachers who use the Direct Method?

§  Teachers how use the Direct Method intend that students learn how to communicate in the target language.

§  Students should learn to think in the target language.

o   What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?

§  The teacher and the students are more like partners in the teaching/learning

o   What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?

§  Teachers who use the DM believe students need to associate meaning and the target language directly.

§  He demonstrates its meaning through the use of realia, pictures, or pantomimes;

§  He never translate it into students’ native language.

§  The syllabus used in DM is based upon situations.

§  Grammar is taught inductively by presenting the examples and students figure out the rule to generalize from the examples.

§  An explicit grammar rule may never b given.

§  Students practice vocabulary by using new words in complete sentences.

o   What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?

§  The interaction goes both ways, from teacher to student  and from student to teacher.

o   How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?

§  Language is primarily spoken, not written.

§  Students study common everyday  speech in the target language.

§  They study culture of the history of the people  so speak the target language, the geography of the country or countries where the language  is spoken.

o   What areas of language  are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?

§  Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar.

§  Oral communication  is seen as basic.

§  Reading and writing exercises are based upon what the students practice orally first.

§  Pronunciation also receives attention right from the beginning of a course.

o   What is the role of the students’ native language?

§  The students’ native language should not be used in the classroom.

o   How is evaluation accomplished?

§  Students are asked to use the language.

§  Students are asked to do so using both oral and written skills.

o   How does the teacher respond to student errors?

§  The teacher tries to get students to self-correct whenever possible.

 

REVIEWING THE TECHNIQUE

o   Reading aloud

o   Question and answer exercise

o   Getting students to self-correct

o   Conversation practice

o   Fill-in-the blank exercise

o   Dictation map drawing

o   Paragraph writing

Wed, 1 Jun 2011 @12:41

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