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Teaching Speaking

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Learning to speak a foreign language requires more than knowing its grammatical and semantic rules. Learners must also acquire the knowledge of how native speakers use the language in the context of structured interpretational exchange, in which many factors interact.

o   Speaking a language is especially difficult for foreign language learners because effective oral communication requires the ability to use the language appropriately in social interactions. Diversity in interaction involves not only verbal communication, but also paralinguistic elements of speech such as pitch, stress, and intonation.

 

FACTOR AFFECTING ADULT EFL LEARNERS’ ORAL COMMUNICATION

> Age or Maturational Constraits

o   The interactive behavior of EFL learners is influenced by a number of factors.

o   Age is one of the most c0mmonly cited determinant factors of success or failure in L2  or foreign language learning.

o   Krashen, Long, and Scardella (1982) argue that  acquirers who begin learning a second language in early childhood through natural exposure achieve higher proficiency in a second language. Their process seems to be ‘fossilization’ – the permanent cessation of second language development.

 

> Aural Medium

o   “While listening, learners must comprehend the text by retaining information in memory, integrate it with what  follows, and continually adjust their understanding of what they hear in the light of prior knowledge and of incoming information”

o   If one cannot understand what is said, one is certainly unable to respond.

 

> Sociocultural Factors

o     Many cultural characteristics of a language also affect L2 or foreign language learning.

o   “shared values and beliefs create the traditions and social structures that  bind a community together and are expressed in their language”

o   To speak a language, one must know how the language is used in a social context.

 

> Affective Factors

o   “The affective side of the learner is probably one of the most important influences on language learning success or failure”

o   The affective factors related to L2 or foreign language learning are emotions, self-esteem, empathy, anxiety, attitude, and motivation.

 

COMPONENTS UNDERLYING SPEAKING EFFECTIVENESS

> Grammatical Competence

o   “Grammatical competence is an umbrella concept that includes increasing expertise in grammar (morphology and syntax), vocabulary, and mechanics.

> Discourse Competence

o   Grammatical competence, EFL learners must develop discourse competence, which is concerned with intersentential relationships.

> Sociolinguistic Competence

o   Understanding  the sociolinguistic side of language helps learners know what comments are appropriate, how to ask questions during interaction, and how to  respond nonverbally according  to the purpose of the talk.

> Strategic Competence

o   Strategic competence, which is “the way learners manipulate language in order to meet communicative goals” is perhaps the most important of all the communicative competence elements.

 

Tue, 31 May 2011 @14:27

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